张 旗,焦守涛,刘惠云.Sr和Yb两个元素对花岗岩理论的重要意义   ——花岗岩研究的哲学思考[J].甘肃地质,2021,(1):1-15
Sr和Yb两个元素对花岗岩理论的重要意义   ——花岗岩研究的哲学思考
Significance of Sr and Yb to Granite Theory: Pilosophical Thinking on Granite Research
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  Sr  Yb  花岗岩  理论  哲学  分类  压力  温度  地球化学  地球动力学意义
英文关键词:Sr  Yb  granite  philosophy  classification  pressure  temperature  geochemistry  geodynamic significance
基金项目:本文受国家重点研发计划项目《基于“地质云”平台的深部找矿知识挖掘》(2016YFC0600510)、《基于地质云的地质灾害基础信息提取与大数据分析挖掘》(2018YFC1505501)、中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所岩石圈演化国家重点实验室项目《镁铁—超镁铁岩大数据研究》(81300001)和中国地质调查局地调项目(DD20190318)联合资助
作者单位
张 旗 1. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所北京 100029 2. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所岩石圈演化国家重点实验室北京 100029 
焦守涛 3. 中国地质调查局发展研究中心北京 1000374. 自然资源部地质信息工程技术创新中心北京 100037 
刘惠云 1. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所北京 100029 2. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所岩石圈演化国家重点实验室北京 100029 
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中文摘要:
      花岗岩研究已有几百年的历史,可是花岗岩却没有形成自己独立的理论体系,也没有系统的花岗岩分类。花岗岩非常复杂,如何化繁为简,归纳出花岗岩最本质、最核心、最关键的标志,是一个非常棘手的任务。本文从哲学的角度出发,发现Sr和Yb可能是两个具有特殊含义的元素,特殊在于,它们不仅具有一般微量元素的特点,还具有特殊的功能,关键是它们的行为与花岗岩部分熔融后残留的变质矿物组成(如石榴石、斜长石等)有关。可能正是由于这个因素,才使Sr和Yb具有其他微量元素所不可匹敌的功能。本文按照Sr、Yb的排列组合提出了一个系统的花岗岩分类。对于花岗岩的地球动力学意义,学术界一直有争论,本文认为板块构造只能影响到大陆边缘,影响不到大陆内部。大陆演化研究最重要的任务是恢复大陆地质历史上的变化,如大陆地质演化不同时期曾经发生过的伸展和挤压(有的还有旋转,是挤压的副产品)、抬升和垮塌、造山与盆地、加厚与减薄等。如何识别上述变化及其过程,目前在方法学上还十分困难。依靠Sr、Yb及其与残留相平衡的理论则提出了一个方案,能够解决或大体解决上述问题。例如,埃达克岩(高Sr低Yb)代表加厚地壳,南岭型(非常低Sr高Yb)代表减薄地壳,浙闽型(低Sr高Yb)和广西型(高Sr高Yb)代表正常厚度的地壳,喜马拉雅型花岗岩(低Sr低Yb)代表中压与高压过渡的状况。因此,按照Sr和Yb的变化,即可大致恢复地质历史时期大陆地壳温压条件的变化,推测大陆地貌的变化(平原、丘陵、高原、山脉),探讨构造应力的变化(挤压导致加厚,伸展导致减薄)等。此外,不同类型花岗岩还与成矿有关,大体是:埃达克岩与金铜有关,南岭型与钨锡有关,喜马拉雅型与金有关,而浙闽型、广西型基本上是不利于成矿的。但是,实践中也有金铜钨锡在空间上共生的实例,则金铜与钨锡可能成因上或成矿时代上或控矿因素上有所不同。问题还很复杂,还有许多现象很难解释,笔者只是从宏观角度给出了一个思路,一个概念,很多细节并不清楚。研究表明,科学与哲学是密切相关的,哲学是科学的高度概括。本文尝试从哲学的角度对纷繁复杂的花岗岩进行归纳和简化,只是一个初步的尝试,还有更多问题需要认真研究。
英文摘要:
      The study of granite has a history of hundreds of years, but granite has not formed its own independent theoretical system, and there is no systematic granite classification. Granite is very complex. How to simplify the complex and summarize the most essential, core, and critical signs of granite is a very difficult task. From a philosophical point of view, this paper found that Sr and Yb may be two elements with special meanings. The special feature is that they not only have the characteristics of general trace elements, but also have special functions. The key is that their behavior is related to the residual granite after partial melting. The composition of metamorphic minerals (such as garnet, plagioclase, etc.). It may be precisely because of this factor that Sr and Yb have functions unmatched by other trace elements. This paper proposes a systematic classification of granites according to the permutation and combination of Sr and Yb. The geodynamic significance of granite has been controversial in academic circles. This paper believes that plate tectonics can only affect the continental margins and not the interior of the continent. The most important task of continental evolution research is to restore changes in the history of continental geology, such as extension and compression (some rotations are byproducts of compression), uplift and collapse, orogeny and basin, thickening and thinning, etc. How to identify the above-mentioned changes and their processes is still very difficult in methodology. Relying on Sr, Yb and the theory of equilibrium with the residual phase, a solution is proposed that can solve or roughly solve the above problems. For example, adakite (high Sr, low Yb) represents thickened crust, Nanling type (very low Sr, high Yb) represents thinned crust, Zhemin type (low Sr, high Yb) and Guangxi type (high Sr, high Yb) representing the normal thickness of the crust, the Himalayan granite (low Sr and low Yb) represents the transition between medium pressure and high pressure. Therefore, according to the changes of Sr and Yb, the changes in continental crustal temperature and pressure conditions during the geological history can be roughly restored, the changes in continental landforms (plains, hills, plateaus, and mountains) can be inferred, and the changes in tectonic stress (extrusion leads to thickening, extension leads to thinning) can be discussed. In addition, different types of granites are also related to mineralization. Generally speaking, adakite is related to gold and copper, Nanling type is related to tungsten and tin, Himalayan type is related to gold, and Zhemin and Guangxi types are basically not conducive to mineralization. However, in practice, there are also instances of the co-existence of gold, copper, tungsten and tin in space, and they may be different in genesis or mineralization age or ore-controlling factors. The problem is still very complicated, and there are many phenomena that are difficult to explain. The author just gave an idea and a concept from a macro perspective, but many details are not clear. Research shows that science and philosophy are closely related, and philosophy is a high-level generalization of science. This paper attempts to summarize and simplify the complex granite from a philosophical point of view. It is only a preliminary attempt. There are more issues that need to be studied carefully.
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